ProductsAbaqus/StandardAbaqus/ExplicitAbaqus/CAE ## ConventionsCoordinate 1 is $r$, coordinate 2 is $z$. At $\theta =0$ the r-direction corresponds to the global x-direction and the z-direction corresponds to the global y-direction. This is important when data must be given in global directions. Coordinate 1 must be greater than or equal to zero. Degree of freedom 1 is ${u}_{r}$, degree of freedom 2 is ${u}_{z}$. Generalized axisymmetric elements with twist have an additional degree of freedom, 5, corresponding to the twist angle $\varphi $ (in radians). Abaqus does not automatically apply any boundary conditions to nodes located along the symmetry axis. You must apply radial or symmetry boundary conditions on these nodes if desired. In certain situations in Abaqus/Standard it may become necessary to apply radial boundary conditions on nodes that are located on the symmetry axis to obtain convergence in nonlinear problems. Therefore, the application of radial boundary conditions on nodes on the symmetry axis is recommended for nonlinear problems. Point loads and moments, concentrated (nodal) fluxes, electrical currents, and seepage should be given as the value integrated around the circumference (that is, the total value on the ring). ## Element types## Stress/displacement elements without twist- CAX3
3-node linear - CAX3H
^{(S)} 3-node linear, hybrid with constant pressure - CAX4
^{(S)} 4-node bilinear - CAX4H
^{(S)} 4-node bilinear, hybrid with constant pressure - CAX4I
^{(S)} 4-node bilinear, incompatible modes - CAX4IH
^{(S)} 4-node bilinear, incompatible modes, hybrid with linear pressure - CAX4R
4-node bilinear, reduced integration with hourglass control - CAX4RH
^{(S)} 4-node bilinear, reduced integration with hourglass control, hybrid with constant pressure - CAX6
^{(S)} 6-node quadratic - CAX6H
^{(S)} 6-node quadratic, hybrid with linear pressure - CAX6M
6-node modified, with hourglass control - CAX6MH
^{(S)} 6-node modified, with hourglass control, hybrid with linear pressure - CAX8
^{(S)} 8-node biquadratic - CAX8H
^{(S)} 8-node biquadratic, hybrid with linear pressure - CAX8R
^{(S)} 8-node biquadratic, reduced integration - CAX8RH
^{(S)} 8-node biquadratic, reduced integration, hybrid with linear pressure
## Active degrees of freedom1, 2 ## Additional solution variablesThe constant pressure hybrid elements have one additional variable and the linear pressure elements have three additional variables relating to pressure. Element types CAX4I and CAX4IH have five additional variables relating to the incompatible modes. Element types CAX6M and CAX6MH have two additional displacement variables. ## Stress/displacement elements with twist- CGAX3
^{(S)} 3-node linear - CGAX3H
^{(S)} 3-node linear, hybrid with constant pressure - CGAX4
^{(S)} 4-node bilinear - CGAX4H
^{(S)} 4-node bilinear, hybrid with constant pressure - CGAX4R
^{(S)} 4-node bilinear, reduced integration with hourglass control - CGAX4RH
^{(S)} 4-node bilinear, reduced integration with hourglass control, hybrid with constant pressure - CGAX6
^{(S)} 6-node quadratic - CGAX6H
^{(S)} 6-node quadratic, hybrid with linear pressure - CGAX6M
^{(S)} 6-node modified, with hourglass control - CGAX6MH
^{(S)} 6-node modified, with hourglass control, hybrid with linear pressure - CGAX8
^{(S)} 8-node biquadratic - CGAX8H
^{(S)} 8-node biquadratic, hybrid with linear pressure - CGAX8R
^{(S)} 8-node biquadratic, reduced integration - CGAX8RH
^{(S)} 8-node biquadratic, reduced integration, hybrid with linear pressure
## Active degrees of freedom1, 2, 5 ## Additional solution variablesThe constant pressure hybrid elements have one additional variable and the linear pressure elements have three additional variables relating to pressure. Element types CGAX6M and CGAX6MH have three additional displacement variables. ## Diffusive heat transfer or mass diffusion elements- DCAX3
^{(S)} 3-node linear - DCAX4
^{(S)} 4-node linear - DCAX6
^{(S)} 6-node quadratic - DCAX8
^{(S)} 8-node quadratic
## Active degrees of freedom11 ## Additional solution variablesNone. ## Forced convection/diffusion elements- DCCAX2
^{(S)} 2-node - DCCAX2D
^{(S)} 2-node with dispersion control - DCCAX4
^{(S)} 4-node - DCCAX4D
^{(S)} 4-node with dispersion control
## Active degrees of freedom11 ## Additional solution variablesNone. ## Coupled thermal-electrical elements- DCAX3E
^{(S)} 3-node linear - DCAX4E
^{(S)} 4-node linear - DCAX6E
^{(S)} 6-node quadratic - DCAX8E
^{(S)} 8-node quadratic
## Active degrees of freedom9, 11 ## Additional solution variablesNone. ## Coupled temperature-displacement elements without twist- CAX3T
3-node linear displacement and temperature - CAX4T
^{(S)} 4-node bilinear displacement and temperature - CAX4HT
^{(S)} 4-node bilinear displacement and temperature, hybrid with constant pressure - CAX4RT
4-node bilinear displacement and temperature, reduced integration with hourglass control - CAX4RHT
^{(S)} 4-node bilinear displacement and temperature, reduced integration with hourglass control, hybrid with constant pressure - CAX6MT
6-node modified displacement and temperature, with hourglass control - CAX6MHT
^{(S)} 6-node modified displacement and temperature, with hourglass control, hybrid with linear pressure - CAX8T
^{(S)} 8-node biquadratic displacement, bilinear temperature - CAX8HT
^{(S)} 8-node biquadratic displacement, bilinear temperature, hybrid with linear pressure - CAX8RT
^{(S)} 8-node biquadratic displacement, bilinear temperature, reduced integration - CAX8RHT
^{(S)} 8-node biquadratic displacement, bilinear temperature, reduced integration, hybrid with linear pressure
## Active degrees of freedom1, 2, 11 at corner nodes 1, 2 at midside nodes of second-order elements in Abaqus/Standard 1, 2, 11 at midside nodes of the modified displacement and temperature elements in Abaqus/Standard ## Additional solution variablesThe constant pressure hybrid elements have one additional variable and the linear pressure elements have three additional variables relating to pressure. Element types CAX6MT and CAX6MHT have two additional displacement variables and one additional temperature variable. ## Coupled temperature-displacement elements with twist- CGAX3T
^{(S)} 3-node linear displacement and temperature - CGAX3HT
^{(S)} 3-node linear displacement and temperature, hybrid with constant pressure - CGAX4T
^{(S)} 4-node bilinear displacement and temperature - CGAX4HT
^{(S)} 4-node bilinear displacement and temperature, hybrid with constant pressure - CGAX4RT
^{(S)} 4-node bilinear displacement and temperature, reduced integration with hourglass control - CGAX4RHT
^{(S)} 4-node bilinear displacement and temperature, reduced integration with hourglass control, hybrid with constant pressure - CGAX6MT
^{(S)} 6-node modified displacement and temperature, with hourglass control - CGAX6MHT
^{(S)} 6-node modified displacement and temperature, with hourglass control, hybrid with constant pressure - CGAX8T
^{(S)} 8-node biquadratic displacement, bilinear temperature - CGAX8HT
^{(S)} 8-node biquadratic displacement, bilinear temperature, hybrid with linear pressure - CGAX8RT
^{(S)} 8-node biquadratic displacement, bilinear temperature, reduced integration - CGAX8RHT
^{(S)} 8-node biquadratic displacement, bilinear temperature, reduced integration, hybrid with linear pressure
## Active degrees of freedom1, 2, 5, 11 at corner nodes 1, 2, 5 at midside nodes of second-order elements 1, 2, 5, 11 at midside nodes of the modified displacement and temperature elements ## Additional solution variablesElement types CGAX6MT and CGAX6MHT have two additional displacement variables and one additional temperature variable. ## Pore pressure elements- CAX4P
^{(S)} 4-node bilinear displacement and pore pressure - CAX4PH
^{(S)} 4-node bilinear displacement and pore pressure, hybrid with constant pressure - CAX4RP
^{(S)} 4-node bilinear displacement and pore pressure, reduced integration with hourglass control - CAX4RPH
^{(S)} 4-node bilinear displacement and pore pressure, reduced integration with hourglass control, hybrid with constant pressure - CAX6MP
^{(S)} 6-node modified displacement and pore pressure, with hourglass control - CAX6MPH
^{(S)} 6-node modified displacement and pore pressure, with hourglass control, hybrid with linear pressure - CAX8P
^{(S)} 8-node biquadratic displacement, bilinear pore pressure - CAX8PH
^{(S)} 8-node biquadratic displacement, bilinear pore pressure, hybrid with linear pressure - CAX8RP
^{(S)} 8-node biquadratic displacement, bilinear pore pressure, reduced integration - CAX8RPH
^{(S)} 8-node biquadratic displacement, bilinear pore pressure, reduced integration, hybrid with linear pressure
## Active degrees of freedom1, 2, 8 at corner nodes 1, 2 at midside nodes ## Additional solution variablesThe constant pressure hybrid elements have one additional variable relating to the effective pressure stress, and the linear pressure hybrid elements have three additional variables relating to the effective pressure stress to permit fully incompressible material modeling. Element types CAX6MP and CAX6MPH have two additional displacement variables and one additional pore pressure variable. ## Coupled temperature–pore pressure elements- CAX4PT
^{(S)} 4-node bilinear displacement, pore pressure, and temperature - CAX4RPT
^{(S)} 4-node bilinear displacement, pore pressure, and temperature; reduced integration with hourglass control - CAX4RPHT
^{(S)} 4-node bilinear displacement, pore pressure, and temperature; reduced integration with hourglass control, hybrid with constant pressure
## Active degrees of freedom1, 2, 8, 11 ## Additional solution variablesThe constant pressure hybrid elements have one additional variable relating to the effective pressure stress to permit fully incompressible material modeling. ## Acoustic elements- ACAX3
3-node linear - ACAX4R
^{(E)} 4-node linear, reduced integration with hourglass control - ACAX4
^{(S)} 4-node linear - ACAX6
^{(S)} 6-node quadratic - ACAX8
^{(S)} 8-node quadratic
## Active degrees of freedom8 ## Additional solution variablesNone. ## Piezoelectric elements- CAX3E
^{(S)} 3-node linear - CAX4E
^{(S)} 4-node bilinear - CAX6E
^{(S)} 6-node quadratic - CAX8E
^{(S)} 8-node biquadratic - CAX8RE
^{(S)} 8-node biquadratic, reduced integration
## Active degrees of freedom1, 2, 9 ## Additional solution variablesNone. ## Nodal coordinates requiredr, z at $\theta =0$ ## Element property definitionFor element types DCCAX2 and DCCAX2D, you must specify the channel thickness of the element in the (r–z) plane. The default is unit thickness if no thickness is given. For all other elements, you do not need to specify the thickness. Input File Usage SOLID SECTION Abaqus/CAE Usage Property module: Create Section: select Solid as the section Category and Homogeneous as the section Type ## Element-based loading## Distributed loadsDistributed loads are available for all elements with displacement degrees of freedom. They are specified as described in Distributed loads. Distributed load magnitudes are per unit area or per unit volume. They do not need to be multiplied by $2\pi $. *dload- Load ID (*DLOAD): BR
- Body force
- FL
^{−3} Body force in radial direction.
- Load ID (*DLOAD): BZ
- Body force
- FL
^{−3} Body force in axial direction.
- Load ID (*DLOAD): BRNU
- Body force
- FL
^{−3} Nonuniform body force in radial direction with magnitude supplied via user subroutine DLOAD in Abaqus/Standard and VDLOAD in Abaqus/Explicit.
- Load ID (*DLOAD): BZNU
- Body force
- FL
^{−3} Nonuniform body force in axial direction with magnitude supplied via user subroutine DLOAD in Abaqus/Standard and VDLOAD in Abaqus/Explicit.
- Load ID (*DLOAD): CENT
^{(S)} - Not supported
- FL
^{−4}M^{−3}T^{−2} Centrifugal load (magnitude input as $\rho {\omega}^{2}$, where $\rho $ is the mass density per unit volume, $\omega $ is the angular velocity). Not available for pore pressure elements.
- Load ID (*DLOAD): CENTRIF
^{(S)} - Rotational body force
- T
^{−2} Centrifugal load (magnitude is input as ${\omega}^{2}$, where $\omega $ is the angular velocity).
- Load ID (*DLOAD): GRAV
- Gravity
- LT
^{−2} Gravity loading in a specified direction (magnitude is input as acceleration).
- Load ID (*DLOAD): HPn
^{(S)} - Not supported
- FL
^{−2} Hydrostatic pressure on face n, linear in global Y.
- Load ID (*DLOAD): Pn
- Pressure
- FL
^{−2} Pressure on face n.
- Load ID (*DLOAD): PnNU
- Not supported
- FL
^{−2} Nonuniform pressure on face n with magnitude supplied via user subroutine DLOAD in Abaqus/Standard and VDLOAD in Abaqus/Explicit.
- Load ID (*DLOAD): SBF
^{(E)} - Not supported
- FL
^{−5}T^{2} Stagnation body force in radial and axial directions.
- Load ID (*DLOAD): SPn
^{(E)} - Not supported
- FL
^{−4}T^{2} Stagnation pressure on face n.
- Load ID (*DLOAD): TRSHRn
- Surface traction
- FL
^{−2} Shear traction on face n.
- Load ID (*DLOAD): TRSHRnNU
^{(S)} - Not supported
- FL
^{−2} Nonuniform shear traction on face n with magnitude and direction supplied via user subroutine UTRACLOAD.
- Load ID (*DLOAD): TRVECn
- Surface traction
- FL
^{−2} General traction on face n.
- Load ID (*DLOAD): TRVECnNU
^{(S)} - Not supported
- FL
^{−2} Nonuniform general traction on face n with magnitude and direction supplied via user subroutine UTRACLOAD.
- Load ID (*DLOAD): VBF
^{(E)} - Not supported
- FL
^{−4}T Viscous body force in radial and axial directions.
- Load ID (*DLOAD): VPn
^{(E)} - Not supported
- FL
^{−3}T Viscous pressure on face n, applying a pressure proportional to the velocity normal to the face and opposing the motion.
## FoundationsFoundations are available for Abaqus/Standard elements with displacement degrees of freedom. They are specified as described in Element foundations. *foundation- Load ID (*FOUNDATION): Fn
^{(S)} - Elastic foundation
- FL
^{−3} Elastic foundation on face n. For CGAX elements the elastic foundations are applied to degrees of freedom ${u}_{r}$ and ${u}_{z}$ only.
## Distributed heat fluxesDistributed heat fluxes are available for all elements with temperature degrees of freedom. They are specified as described in Thermal loads. Distributed heat flux magnitudes are per unit area or per unit volume. They do not need to be multiplied by $2\pi $. *dflux- Load ID (*DFLUX): BF
- Body heat flux
- JL
^{−3}T^{−1} Heat body flux per unit volume.
- Load ID (*DFLUX): BFNU
- Body heat flux
- JL
^{−3}T^{−1} Nonuniform heat body flux per unit volume with magnitude supplied via user subroutine DFLUX in Abaqus/Standard and VDFLUX in Abaqus/Explicit.
- Load ID (*DFLUX): Sn
- Surface heat flux
- JL
^{−2}T^{−1} Heat surface flux per unit area into face n.
## Film conditionsFilm conditions are available for all elements with temperature degrees of freedom. They are specified as described in Thermal loads. *film- Load ID (*FILM): Fn
- Surface film condition
- JL
^{−2}T^{−1}$\theta $^{−1} Film coefficient and sink temperature (units of $\theta $) provided on face n.
- Load ID (*FILM): FnNU
^{(S)} - Not supported
- JL
^{−2}T^{−1}$\theta $^{−1} Nonuniform film coefficient and sink temperature (units of $\theta $) provided on face n with magnitude supplied via user subroutine FILM.
## Radiation typesRadiation conditions are available for all elements with temperature degrees of freedom. They are specified as described in Thermal loads. *radiate- Load ID (*RADIATE): Rn
- Surface radiation
- Dimensionless
Emissivity and sink temperature provided for face n.
## Distributed flowsDistributed flows are available for all elements with pore pressure degrees of freedom. They are specified as described in Pore fluid flow. Distributed flow magnitudes are per unit area or per unit volume. They do not need to be multiplied by $2\pi $. *flow- Load ID (*FLOW): Qn
^{(S)} - Not supported
- F
^{−1}L^{3}T^{−1} Seepage coefficient and reference sink pore pressure (units of FL ^{−2}) provided on face n.
- Load ID (*FLOW): QnD
^{(S)} - Not supported
- F
^{−1}L^{3}T^{−1} Drainage-only seepage coefficient provided on face n.
- Load ID (*FLOW): QnNU
^{(S)} - Not supported
- F
^{−1}L^{3}T^{−1} Nonuniform seepage coefficient and reference sink pore pressure (units of FL ^{−2}) provided on face n with magnitude supplied via user subroutine FLOW.
- Load ID (*DFLOW): Sn
^{(S)} - Surface pore fluid
- LT
^{−1} Prescribed pore fluid effective velocity (outward from the face) on face n.
- Load ID (*DFLOW): SnNU
^{(S)} - Not supported
- LT
^{−1} Nonuniform prescribed pore fluid effective velocity (outward from the face) on face n with magnitude supplied via user subroutine DFLOW.
## Distributed impedancesDistributed impedances are available for all elements with acoustic pressure degrees of freedom. They are specified as described in Acoustic and shock loads. *impedance- Load ID (*IMPEDANCE): In
- Not supported
- None
Name of the impedance property that defines the impedance on face n.
## Electric fluxesElectric fluxes are available for piezoelectric elements. They are specified as described in Piezoelectric analysis. *decharge- Load ID (*DECHARGE): EBF
^{(S)} - Body charge
- CL
^{−3} Body flux per unit volume.
- Load ID (*DECHARGE): ESn
^{(S)} - Surface charge
- CL
^{−2} Prescribed surface charge on face n.
## Distributed electric current densitiesDistributed electric current densities are available for coupled thermal-electrical elements. They are specified as described in Coupled thermal-electrical analysis. *decurrent- Load ID (*DECURRENT): CBF
^{(S)} - Body current
- CL
^{−3}T^{−1} Volumetric current source density.
- Load ID (*DECURRENT): CSn
^{(S)} - Surface current
- CL
^{−2}T^{−1} Current density on face n.
## Distributed concentration fluxesDistributed concentration fluxes are available for mass diffusion elements. They are specified as described in Mass diffusion analysis. *dflux- Load ID (*DFLUX): BF
^{(S)} - Body concentration flux
- PT
^{−1} Concentration body flux per unit volume.
- Load ID (*DFLUX): BFNU
^{(S)} - Body concentration flux
- PT
^{−1} Nonuniform concentration body flux per unit volume with magnitude supplied via user subroutine DFLUX.
- Load ID (*DFLUX): Sn
^{(S)} - Surface concentration flux
- PLT
^{−1} Concentration surface flux per unit area into face n.
- Load ID (*DFLUX): SnNU
^{(S)} - Surface concentration flux
- PLT
^{−1} Nonuniform concentration surface flux per unit area into face n with magnitude supplied via user subroutine DFLUX.
## Surface-based loading## Distributed loadsSurface-based distributed loads are available for all elements with displacement degrees of freedom. They are specified as described in Distributed loads. Distributed load magnitudes are per unit area or per unit volume. They do not need to be multiplied by $2\pi $. *dsload- Load ID (*DSLOAD): HP
^{(S)} - Pressure
- FL
^{−2} Hydrostatic pressure on the element surface, linear in global Y.
- Load ID (*DSLOAD): P
- Pressure
- FL
^{−2} Pressure on the element surface.
- Load ID (*DSLOAD): PNU
- Pressure
- FL
^{−2} Nonuniform pressure on the element surface with magnitude supplied via user subroutine DLOAD in Abaqus/Standard and VDLOAD in Abaqus/Explicit.
- Load ID (*DSLOAD): SP
^{(E)} - Pressure
- FL
^{−4}T^{2} Stagnation pressure on the element surface.
- Load ID (*DSLOAD): TRSHR
- Surface traction
- FL
^{−2} Shear traction on the element surface.
- Load ID (*DSLOAD): TRSHRNU
^{(S)} - Surface traction
- FL
^{−2} Nonuniform shear traction on the element surface with magnitude and direction supplied via user subroutine UTRACLOAD.
- Load ID (*DSLOAD): TRVEC
- Surface traction
- FL
^{−2} General traction on the element surface.
- Load ID (*DSLOAD): TRVECNU
^{(S)} - Surface traction
- FL
^{−2} Nonuniform general traction on the element surface with magnitude and direction supplied via user subroutine UTRACLOAD.
- Load ID (*DSLOAD): VP
^{(E)} - Pressure
- FL
^{−3}T Viscous pressure applied on the element surface. The viscous pressure is proportional to the velocity normal to the face and opposing the motion.
## Distributed heat fluxesSurface-based heat fluxes are available for all elements with temperature degrees of freedom. They are specified as described in Thermal loads. Distributed heat flux magnitudes are per unit area or per unit volume. They do not need to be multiplied by $2\pi $. *dsflux- Load ID (*DSFLUX): S
- Surface heat flux
- JL
^{−2}T^{−1} Heat surface flux per unit area into the element surface.
## Film conditionsSurface-based film conditions are available for all elements with temperature degrees of freedom. They are specified as described in Thermal loads. *sfilm- Load ID (*SFILM): F
- Surface film condition
- JL
^{−2}T^{−1}$\theta $^{−1} Film coefficient and sink temperature (units of $\theta $) provided on the element surface.
- Load ID (*SFILM): FNU
^{(S)} - Surface film condition
- JL
^{−2}T^{−1}$\theta $^{−1} Nonuniform film coefficient and sink temperature (units of $\theta $) provided on the element surface with magnitude supplied via user subroutine FILM.
## Radiation typesSurface-based radiation conditions are available for all elements with temperature degrees of freedom. They are specified as described in Thermal loads. *sradiate- Load ID (*SRADIATE): R
- Surface radiation
- Dimensionless
Emissivity and sink temperature provided for the element surface.
## Distributed flowsSurface-based distributed flows are available for all elements with pore pressure degrees of freedom. They are specified as described in Pore fluid flow. Distributed flow magnitudes are per unit area or per unit volume. They do not need to be multiplied by $2\pi $. *sflow- Load ID (*SFLOW): Q
^{(S)} - Not supported
- F
^{−1}L^{3}T^{−1} Seepage coefficient and reference sink pore pressure (units of FL ^{−2}) provided on the element surface.
- Load ID (*SFLOW): QD
^{(S)} - Not supported
- F
^{−1}L^{3}T^{−1} Drainage-only seepage coefficient provided on the element surface.
- Load ID (*SFLOW): QNU
^{(S)} - Not supported
- F
^{−1}L^{3}T^{−1} Nonuniform seepage coefficient and reference sink pore pressure (units of FL ^{−2}) provided on the element surface with magnitude supplied via user subroutine FLOW.
- Load ID (*DSFLOW): S
^{(S)} - Surface pore fluid
- LT
^{−1} Prescribed pore fluid effective velocity outward from the element surface.
- Load ID (*DSFLOW): SNU
^{(S)} - Surface pore fluid
- LT
^{−1} Nonuniform prescribed pore fluid effective velocity outward from the element surface with magnitude supplied via user subroutine DFLOW.
## Distributed impedancesSurface-based impedances are available for all elements with acoustic pressure degrees of freedom. They are specified as described in Acoustic and shock loads. ## Incident wave loadingSurface-based incident wave loads are available for all elements with displacement degrees of freedom or acoustic pressure degrees of freedom. They are specified as described in Acoustic and shock loads. If the incident wave field includes a reflection off a plane outside the boundaries of the mesh, this effect can be included. ## Electric fluxesSurface-based electric fluxes are available for piezoelectric elements. They are specified as described in Piezoelectric analysis. *dsecharge- Load ID (*DSECHARGE): ES
^{(S)} - Surface charge
- CL
^{−2} Prescribed surface charge on the element surface.
## Distributed electric current densitiesSurface-based electric current densities are available for coupled thermal-electrical elements. They are specified as described in Coupled thermal-electrical analysis. *dsecurrent- Load ID (*DSECURRENT): CS
^{(S)} - Surface current
- CL
^{−2}T^{−1} Current density on the element surface.
## Element outputOutput is in global directions unless a local coordinate system is assigned to the element through the section definition (Orientations) in which case output is in the local coordinate system (which rotates with the motion in large-displacement analysis). See State storage for details. For regular axisymmetric elements, the local orientation must be in the $r$–z plane with $\theta $ being a principal direction. For generalized axisymmetric elements with twist, the local orientation can be arbitrary. ## Stress, strain, and other tensor componentsStress and other tensors (including strain tensors) are available for elements with displacement degrees of freedom. All tensors have the same components. For example, the stress components are as follows: For elements with displacement degrees of freedom without twist: - S11
Stress in the radial direction or in the local 1-direction. - S22
Stress in the axial direction or in the local 2-direction. - S33
Hoop direct stress. - S12
Shear stress.
For elements with displacement degrees of freedom with twist: - S11
Stress in the radial direction or in the local 1-direction. - S22
Stress in the axial direction or in the local 2-direction. - S33
Stress in the circumferential direction or in the local 3-direction. - S12
Shear stress. - S13
Shear stress. - S23
Shear stress.
## Heat flux componentsAvailable for elements with temperature degrees of freedom. - HFL1
Heat flux in the radial direction or in the local 1-direction. - HFL2
Heat flux in the axial direction or in the local 2-direction.
## Pore fluid velocity componentsAvailable for elements with pore pressure degrees of freedom, except for acoustic elements. - FLVEL1
Pore fluid effective velocity in the radial direction or in the local 1-direction. - FLVEL2
Pore fluid effective velocity in the axial direction or in the local 2-direction.
## Mass concentration flux componentsAvailable for elements with normalized concentration degrees of freedom. - MFL1
Concentration flux in the radial direction or in the local 1-direction. - MFL2
Concentration flux in the axial direction or in the local 2-direction.
## Electrical potential gradientAvailable for elements with electrical potential degrees of freedom. - EPG1
Electrical potential gradient in the 1-direction. - EPG2
Electrical potential gradient in the 2-direction.
## Electrical flux componentsAvailable for piezoelectric elements. - EFLX1
Electrical flux in the 1-direction. - EFLX2
Electrical flux in the 2-direction.
## Electrical current density componentsAvailable for coupled thermal-electrical elements. - ECD1
Electrical current density in the 1-direction. - ECD2
Electrical current density in the 2-direction.
## Node ordering and face numbering on elements
## Numbering of integration points for outputFor heat transfer applications a different integration scheme is used for triangular elements, as described in Triangular, tetrahedral, and wedge elements. |