Thermal strainThermal expansion can be introduced for any of the elasticity or fabric models (Thermal expansion). Elastic strain magnitudeExcept in the hyperelasticity and fabric material models, the stresses are always assumed to be small compared to the tangent modulus of the elasticity relationship; that is, the elastic strain must be small (less than 5%). The total strain can be arbitrarily large if inelastic response such as metal plasticity is included in the material definition. For finite-strain calculations where the large strains are purely elastic, the fabric model (for woven fabrics), the hyperelastic model (for rubberlike behavior), or the foam hyperelasticity model (for elastomeric foams) should be used. The hyperelasticity and fabric models are the only models that give realistic predictions of actual material behavior at large elastic strains. The linear or, in Abaqus/Standard, porous elasticity models are appropriate in other cases where the large strains are inelastic. In Abaqus/Standard the linear elastic, porous elastic, and hypoelastic models will exhibit poor convergence characteristics if the stresses reach levels of 50% or more of the elastic moduli; this limitation is not serious in practical cases because these material models are not valid for the resulting large strains. |