ProductsAbaqus/StandardAbaqus/CAE TypeHistory data
LevelStep Abaqus/CAEStep module
Required, mutually exclusive parameters
 ANALYSIS

This parameter applies only to
Abaqus/Standard
analyses.
Set ANALYSIS=DISCONTINUOUS to set parameters that will usually improve efficiency for
severely discontinuous behavior, such as frictional sliding or concrete
cracking, by allowing relatively many iterations prior to beginning any checks
on the convergence rate. This parameter overrides any values that may be set
for the variables ${I}_{0}$
and ${I}_{R}$
on the data lines associated with PARAMETERS=TIME INCREMENTATION. A less efficient solution may result if this parameter is set
in problems that do not exhibit severely discontinuous behavior.
 PARAMETERS

This parameter applies only to
Abaqus/Standard
analyses.
Set PARAMETERS=FIELD to set parameters for satisfying a field equation. In this
case the FIELD parameter can be used to define the field for which the
parameters are being given. If the FIELD parameter is omitted, the parameters are being set for all
fields that are active in the problem.
Set PARAMETERS=CONSTRAINTS to set tolerances on constraint equations.
Set PARAMETERS=LINE SEARCH to set line search control parameters.
Set PARAMETERS=TIME INCREMENTATION to set time incrementation control parameters.
 RESET

Include this parameter to reset all values to their defaults. The option
should have no data lines when this parameter is used.
 TYPE

Set TYPE=DIRECT CYCLIC to set parameters that will be used to control the stabilized
state and plastic ratcheting detections and to specify when to impose the
periodicity condition for direct cyclic analysis.
Set TYPE=NO CUTBACK SCALING to set the $\alpha $
and $\beta $
parameters that will be used with the unstable crack growth criterion in an
XFEM analysis.
Set TYPE=VCCT LINEAR SCALING to set the $\beta $
parameter that will be used with linear scaling for a
VCCT
debonding analysis.
Optional parameters
 FIELD

This parameter can be used only with PARAMETERS=FIELD in
Abaqus/Standard.
Set FIELD=CONCENTRATION to set parameters for the mass concentration field equilibrium
equations.
Set FIELD=DISPLACEMENT to set parameters for the displacement field and warping
degree of freedom equilibrium equations.
Set FIELD=ELECTRICAL POTENTIAL to set parameters for the electrical potential field
equilibrium equations.
Set FIELD=GLOBAL (default) to define one set of parameters to be used for all
active fields.
Set FIELD=HYDROSTATIC FLUID PRESSURE to set parameters for the hydrostatic fluid element volume
constraint.
Set FIELD=MATERIAL FLOW to set parameters for the material flow degree of freedom for
connector elements.
Set FIELD=PORE FLUID PRESSURE to set parameters for the pore liquid volumetric continuity
equations.
Set FIELD=PRESSURE LAGRANGE MULTIPLIER to set parameters for the pressure Lagrange multiplier field
equations.
Set FIELD=ROTATION to set parameters for the rotation field equilibrium
equations.
Set FIELD=TEMPERATURE to set parameters for the temperature field equilibrium
equations.
Set FIELD=VOLUMETRIC LAGRANGE MULTIPLIER to set parameters for the volumetric Lagrange multiplier field
equations.
Data lines for PARAMETERS=FIELD First
line

${R}_{n}^{\alpha}$,
convergence criterion for the ratio of the largest residual to the
corresponding average flux norm for convergence. Default
${R}_{n}^{\alpha}=5\times {10}^{3}$.

${C}_{n}^{\alpha}$,
convergence criterion for the ratio of the largest solution correction to the
largest corresponding incremental solution value. Default
${C}_{n}^{\alpha}={10}^{2}$.

${\stackrel{~}{q}}_{0}^{\alpha}$,
initial value of the time average flux for this step. The default is the time
average flux from previous steps or ${10}^{2}$
if this is Step 1.

${\stackrel{~}{q}}_{u}^{\alpha}$,
userdefined average flux. When this value is defined,
${\stackrel{~}{q}}^{\alpha}\left(t\right)={\stackrel{~}{q}}_{u}^{\alpha}$
for all t.
 The remaining items rarely need to be reset from
their default values.

${R}_{P}^{\alpha}$,
alternative residual convergence criterion to be used after
${I}_{P}^{\alpha}$
iterations. Default ${R}_{P}^{\alpha}=2\times {10}^{2}$.

${\u03f5}^{\alpha}$,
criterion for zero flux compared to ${\stackrel{~}{q}}^{\alpha}$.
Default ${\u03f5}^{\alpha}={10}^{5}$.

${C}_{\u03f5}^{\alpha}$,
convergence criterion for the ratio of the largest solution correction to the
largest corresponding incremental solution value when there is zero flux in the
model. Default ${C}_{\u03f5}^{\alpha}={10}^{3}$.

${R}_{l}^{\alpha}$,
convergence criterion for the ratio of the largest residual to the
corresponding average flux norm for convergence to be accepted in one iteration
(that is, for a linear case). Default ${R}_{l}^{\alpha}={10}^{8}$.
 Second line
These items
rarely need to be reset from their default values.

${C}_{f}$,
field conversion ratio used in scaling the relationship between two active
fields when one is of negligible magnitude. Default ${C}_{f}=1.0$.

${\u03f5}_{l}^{\alpha}$,
criterion for zero flux compared to the time averaged value of the largest flux
${\stackrel{~}{q}}_{\mathrm{max}}^{\alpha}$
in the model during the current step. Default ${\u03f5}_{l}^{\alpha}={10}^{5}$.

${\u03f5}_{d}^{\alpha}$,
criterion for zero displacement increment (and/or zero penetration if CONVERT SDI=YES) compared to the characteristic element length in the model.
This item is used only when FIELD=DISPLACEMENT. Default ${\u03f5}_{d}^{\alpha}={10}^{8}$.
Data line for PARAMETERS=CONSTRAINTS First (and
only) line
These items rarely need to be
reset from their default values. The relevance of certain parameters depends on
the value of the CONVERT SDI parameter on the
STEP option. 
${T}^{vol}$,
volumetric strain compatibility tolerance for hybrid solid elements. Default
${T}^{vol}={10}^{5}$.

${T}^{axial}$,
axial strain compatibility tolerance for hybrid beam elements. Default
${T}^{axial}={10}^{5}$.

${T}^{tshear}$,
transverse shear strain compatibility tolerance for hybrid beam elements.
Default ${T}^{tshear}={10}^{5}$.

${T}^{cont}$,
contact and slip compatibility tolerance. For CONVERT SDI=YES, the ratio of the maximum error in the contact or slip
constraints to the maximum displacement increment must be less than this
tolerance.
For CONVERT SDI=NO, this is used only with softened contact specified with the
SURFACE BEHAVIOR, PRESSUREOVERCLOSURE option. The ratio of the error in the soft contact constraint
clearance to the userspecified clearance at which the contact pressure is zero
must lie below this tolerance for $p>{p}^{0}$,
where ${p}^{0}$
is the pressure value at zero clearance. Default ${T}^{cont}=5\times {10}^{3}$.

${T}^{soft}$,
soft contact compatibility tolerance for low pressure. This tolerance, which is
used only if CONVERT SDI=NO, is similar to ${T}^{cont}$
for softened contact, except that it represents the tolerance when
$p=0.0$.
The actual tolerance is interpolated linearly between ${T}^{cont}$
and ${T}^{soft}$
for $0\le p\le {p}^{0}$.
Default ${T}^{soft}=0.1$.

${T}^{disp}$,
displacement compatibility tolerance for distributing coupling elements. The
ratio of the error in the distributing coupling displacement compatibility to a
measure of the characteristic length of the coupling arrangement must lie below
this tolerance. This characteristic length is twice the average of the coupling
node arrangement principal radii of gyration. Default ${T}^{disp}={10}^{5}$.

${T}^{rot}$,
rotation compatibility tolerance for distributing coupling elements. Default
${T}^{rot}={10}^{5}$.

${T}^{cfe}$,
contact force error tolerance for CONVERT SDI=YES. The ratio of the maximum error in the contact force to the
time average force must be less than this tolerance. Default
${T}^{cfe}=1.0$.
This parameter is not used if CONVERT SDI=NO.
Data line for PARAMETERS=LINE SEARCH First (and
only) line

${N}^{ls}$,
maximum number of line search iterations. Default ${N}^{ls}=0$
for steps that use the Newton method and ${N}^{ls}=5$
for steps that use the quasiNewton method. A suggested value for activation of
the line search algorithm is ${N}^{ls}=5$.
Specify ${N}^{ls}=0$
to forcibly deactivate the method.

${s}_{max}^{ls}$,
maximum correction scale factor. Default ${s}_{max}^{ls}=1.0$.

${s}_{min}^{ls}$,
minimum correction scale factor. Default ${s}_{min}^{ls}=0.0001$.

${f}_{s}^{ls}$,
residual reduction factor at which line searching terminates. Default
${f}_{s}^{ls}=0.25$.

${\eta}^{ls}$,
ratio of new to old correction scale factors below which line searching
terminates. Default ${\eta}^{ls}=0.10$.
Data lines for PARAMETERS=TIME INCREMENTATION First
line
The relevance of certain parameters
depends on the value of the CONVERT SDI parameter on the
STEP option. 
${I}_{0}$,
number of equilibrium iterations (without severe discontinuities) after which
the check is made whether the residuals are increasing in two consecutive
iterations. Minimum value is ${I}_{0}=3$.
Default ${I}_{0}=4$.
If ANALYSIS=DISCONTINUOUS, ${I}_{0}=8$.

${I}_{R}$,
number of consecutive equilibrium iterations (without severe discontinutities)
at which logarithmic rate of convergence check begins. Default
${I}_{R}=8$.
If ANALYSIS=DISCONTINUOUS, ${I}_{R}=10$.
The logarithmic rate of convergence is not checked if fixed time incrementation
is used.
 The remaining items rarely need to be reset from
their default values.

${I}_{P}$,
number of consecutive equilibrium iterations (without severe discontinuities)
after which the residual tolerance ${R}_{p}$
is used instead of ${R}_{n}$.
Default ${I}_{P}=9$.

${I}_{C}$,
upper limit on the number of consecutive equilibrium iterations (without severe
discontinuities), based on prediction of the logarithmic rate of convergence.
Default ${I}_{C}=16$.

${I}_{L}$,
number of consecutive equilibrium iterations (without severe discontinuities)
above which the size of the next increment will be reduced. Default
${I}_{L}=10$.

${I}_{G}$,
maximum number of consecutive equilibrium iterations (without severe
discontinuities) allowed in consecutive increments for the time increment to be
increased. Default ${I}_{G}=4$.

${I}_{S}$,
maximum number of severe discontinuity iterations allowed in an increment if CONVERT SDI=NO. Default ${I}_{S}=12$.
This parameter is not used if CONVERT SDI=YES.

${I}_{A}$,
maximum number of attempts allowed for an increment. Default
${I}_{A}=5$.

${I}_{J}$,
maximum number of severe discontinuity iterations allowed in two consecutive
increments for the time increment to be increased if CONVERT SDI=NO. Default ${I}_{J}=6$.
This parameter is not used if CONVERT SDI=YES.

${I}_{T}$,
minimum number of consecutive increments in which the time integration accuracy
measure must be satisfied without any cutbacks to allow a time increment
increase. Default ${I}_{T}=3$.
Maximum allowed ${I}_{T}=10$.

${I}_{S}^{c}$,
maximum number of equilibrium and severe discontinuity iterations allowed in an
increment if CONVERT SDI=YES. Default ${I}_{S}^{c}=50$.
This parameter serves only as a protection against failure of the default
convergence criteria and should rarely need to be changed. This parameter is
not used if CONVERT SDI=NO.

${I}_{J}^{c}$,
maximum number of equilibrium and severe discontinuity iterations allowed in
two consecutive increments for the time increment to be increased if CONVERT SDI=YES. Default ${I}_{J}^{c}=50$.
This parameter is not used if CONVERT SDI=NO.

${I}_{A}^{c}$,
maximum number of allowed contact augmentations if the augmented Lagrange
contact constraint enforcement method is specified. Default
${I}_{A}^{c}=50$.
 Second line
These items
rarely need to be reset from their default values.

${D}_{f}$,
cutback factor used when the solution appears to be diverging. Default
${D}_{f}=0.25$.

${D}_{C}$,
cutback factor used when the logarithmic rate of convergence predicts that too
many equilibrium iterations will be needed. Default ${D}_{C}=0.5$.

${D}_{B}$,
cutback factor for the next increment when too many equilibrium iterations
(${I}_{L}$)
are used in the current increment. Default ${D}_{B}=0.75$.

${D}_{A}$,
cutback factor used when the time integration accuracy tolerance is exceeded.
Default ${D}_{A}=0.85$.

${D}_{S}$,
cutback factor used when too many iterations (${I}_{S}$)
arise because of severe discontinuities. Default ${D}_{S}=0.25$.

${D}_{H}$,
cutback factor used when element calculations have problems such as excessive
distortion in largedisplacement problems. Default ${D}_{H}=0.25$.

${D}_{D}$,
increase factor when two consecutive increments converge in a small number of
equilibrium iterations (${I}_{G}$).
Default ${D}_{D}=1.5$.

${W}_{G}$,
ratio of average time integration accuracy measure over
${I}_{T}$
increments to the corresponding tolerance for the next allowable time increment
to be increased. Default ${W}_{G}=0.75$.
 Third line
These items rarely
need to be reset from their default values. 
${D}_{G}$,
increase factor for the next time increment, as a ratio of the average
integration accuracy measure over ${I}_{T}$
increments to the corresponding tolerance, when the time integration accuracy
measure is less than ${W}_{G}$
of the tolerance during ${I}_{T}$
consecutive increments. Default ${D}_{G}=0.8$.

${D}_{M}$,
maximum time increment increase factor for all cases except dynamic stress
analysis and diffusiondominated processes. Default ${D}_{M}=1.5$.

${D}_{M}$,
maximum time increment increase factor for dynamic stress analysis. Default
${D}_{M}=1.25$.

${D}_{M}$,
maximum time increment increase factor for diffusiondominated processes
(creep, transient heat transfer, soils consolidation, transient mass
diffusion). Default ${D}_{M}=2.0$.

${D}_{L}$,
minimum ratio of proposed next time increment to ${D}_{M}$
times the current time increment for the proposed time increment to be used in
a linear transient problem. This parameter is intended to avoid excessive
decomposition of the system matrix and should be less than 1.0. Default
${D}_{L}=0.95$.

${D}_{E}$,
minimum ratio of proposed next time increment to the last successful time
increment for extrapolation of the solution vector to take place. Default
${D}_{E}=0.1$.

${D}_{R}$,
maximum allowable ratio of time increment to stability limit for conditionally
stable time integration procedures. Default is 1.0.

${D}_{F}$,
fraction of stability limit used as current time increment when the time
increment exceeds the above factor times the stability limit. This value cannot
exceed 1.0. Default 0.95.
 Fourth line
These items
rarely need to be reset from their default values.

${D}_{T}$,
increase factor for the time increment directly before a time point or end time
of a step is reached. This parameter is used to avoid the small time increment
that is sometimes necessary to hit a time point or to complete a step and must
be greater than or equal to 1.0. If output or restart data are requested at
exact times in a step, the default ${D}_{T}=1.25$;
otherwise, the default ${D}_{T}=1.0$.
Data line for TYPE=DIRECT CYCLIC First (and
only) line

${I}_{PI}$,
iteration number at which the periodicity condition is first imposed. Default
${I}_{PI}=1$.

$C{R}_{n}^{\alpha}$,
stabilized state detection criterion for the ratio of the largest residual
coefficient on any terms in the Fourier series to the corresponding average
flux norm. Default $C{R}_{n}^{\alpha}=5\times {10}^{3}$.

$C{U}_{n}^{\alpha}$,
stabilized state detection criterion for the ratio of the largest correction to
the displacement coefficient on any terms in the Fourier series to the largest
displacement coefficient. Default $C{U}_{n}^{\alpha}=5\times {10}^{3}$.

$C{R}_{0}^{\alpha}$,
plastic ratchetting detection criterion for the ratio of the largest residual
coefficient on the constant term in the Fourier series to the corresponding
average flux norm. Default $C{R}_{0}^{\alpha}=5\times {10}^{3}$.

$C{U}_{0}^{\alpha}$,
plastic ratchetting detection criterion for the ratio of the largest correction
to the displacement coefficient on the constant term in the Fourier series to
the largest displacement coefficient. Default $C{U}_{0}^{\alpha}=5\times {10}^{3}$.
Data line for TYPE=NO CUTBACK SCALING First (and
only) line

$\alpha $
parameter. Default $\alpha =0.5$.

$\beta $
parameter. Default $\beta =2.0$.
Data line for TYPE=VCCT LINEAR SCALING First (and
only) line

$\beta $
parameter. Default $\beta =0.9$.
